Binary Options Glossary – A list of all the terms you need ...

desktop epub reader in Electron

I've been working on an Electron epub reader called Jorkens, based on the excellent epub.js library at https://github.com/futurepress/epub.js. My project, which is intended mainly to facilitate the use of various types of reference resources while reading foreign language books, is at https://github.com/mcthulhu/jorkens. It's a work in progress, but is becoming useful, I think. It's been tested only on Windows 10 so far, but at least a Linux version will be coming later. In addition to links to online dictionaries for various languages, it can search local glossaries and parallel texts (translation memories), and has some support for text-to-speech and machine translation. It has its own basic flashcard review system, as well as an option to export flashcards for use in Anki (a full-fledged spaced repetition system). I haven't posted a binary release yet but anyone interested in looking at Jorkens should be able to run the development version. A few things don't work yet, like the library view, and the CSS needs work, but I hope to get to that. Any suggestions are welcome - I'm a hobbyist programmer and mostly progress by trial and error...
submitted by FluffNotes to electronjs [link] [comments]

The Discovery - Vengeance V

So, another chapter of Vengeance. I have no real idea if people even really like this story compared to my others, but it'll be VERY important later in it's universe, and I really really like it.
Anyways, another chapter follows so soon, simply because I am really feeling this story at the moment. Whatever, it's fine.
"Example" - Normal Dialogue
<Example> - Ship to Ship Communications
{Example} - Higher Dimensional Communications
[Revised History Pt. 1] [Previous] [Next] [Glossary]
***

Vengeance Ⅴ - 787 CE - Xeryon - System Welthui 19

2 Years after the Fall of Jelthoria
I was very, very tempted to find and raze a Rek’Thalak planet. I was only a few systems away from where I had been seen, but things were going significantly worse than I expected. I have no idea how, but that little ship managed to alert Stridwen authorities that I was out here, and they somehow managed to find me.
I checked again that I couldn’t up my sublight speed without running the risk of a reactor dropping out. I was moving at maximum speed across the system, trying to slingshot myself around a supermassive F-Type star. Not too far behind me, was eight Stridwen Battlecruisers and ten Cruisers.
I had already deflected a number of lucky shots with my rear shields, but that wasn’t too hard. They were still half a system away, and the hits were more due to area saturation than any real accuracy.
The real problem was that they were gaining on me. No matter how I calculated it, I’d have to wind up choosing one of four options.
First, I could jump into a new system and find an ambush site while they analyzed residue radiation and space-time distortion. This had the disadvantage of attacking a large, alert Stridwen force. It did however, have the large advantage of not being option 2.
Option two, was turning and engaging head on. While I could take them down, Dreadnoughts are designed Fleet-Killers after all, there was still the risk of a mistake, of them getting off a miracle shot that damaged me enough that another group could catch up. The chance was small, but it was still present.
Option three, while my ideal option, was also the least likely. Jumping from the system, and they arrive too late to get a pinpoint reading on my destination, and then I manage to get away that way. It was a small chance, that was only getting smaller with every system we ran through.
And then the terrifying option four. Jump into interstellar space. It would almost certainly shake them, but the risk of jumping literally into something was omnipresent there. At least with established systems I know what’s there and where to jump in.
Four options, and none of them both ideal and likely.
Well fuck. This is… Seriously, fuck the Rek’Thalak. The next ship of theirs I see is gonna die and die hard. Whatever.. That doesn’t matter at the moment, Option one has to be it.. Option two is the same but riskier, option three is almost nonexistent at this point, and option four is.. Not really an option.
I checked in on the submind that I had assigned to constantly monitor the distance between the Stridwen and myself, 3.2 AUs.
I can hit 3 systems from the point I’m heading at… I’ll get the most time to prepare at Welthui 21, but it also had a mining colony from last check… Welthui 17 isn’t an option, it has one of their Occupation Stations. Welthui 23, it’s a binary system, 3 gas giants, and 5 rocky planets. I’ll be coming in at the Galactic South, so one gas giant and one rocky planet, a thin asteroid belt… Okay. I can do this.
I immediately calculated the course correction, shifting to allow the gravity of the supermassive gas giant to affect me more, allowing for a sharper turn.
Hold on… I’ll be invisible for a short while as I swing around…
I could feel my matrix hum in the imitation of a predatory grin. A few thousand calculations ran almost at once, before I plotted a new course. One that would bring me directly into the face of the Stridwen.
Time to see how you furry fuckers like playing with me…
I slowly, almost imperceptibly activated one of my fusion reactors, choosing one that was specifically almost invisible to sensors located behind me. As I did so, I began shifting fighter drones to their launch bays, preparing for the first step.
As soon as the reactor was at full power, I vented the entire plasma charge into space. In the ensuing chaos of heat and radiation readings left over from a suddenly interrupted fusion process, I began the first step. 200 fighter drones were ejected rapidly, allowed to drift without activating. Running dark, they were almost invisible behind the smokescreen of the vented reactor. At the same time, I used the force of the launcher to neutralize the larger part of my forward velocity.
To explain the sudden loss of reactor control, I began to lower the efficiency of my engines, throttling down speed while increasing distortion effects. Combining the engine distortion and the vented plasma allowed me to not only hide the drones, but also the 500 missiles I drifted out of my few hangar bays.
I watched my silent future presents carefully before focusing on the next step. Still sputtering my engines, I watched as my projected path around the gas giant suddenly became much, much sharper, almost slinging me entirely around in an orbit.
Oh, this’ll be fun!
Even as I slid behind the planet, and temporarily from view, my behaviour rapidly changed. I immediately returned my engines to full functionality and began helping along my plotted path, helping the gas giant sling me around directly into the oncoming Stridwen. I shifted a massive amount of power to forward shield power banks, weakening my other shields in exchange. When I came around that gas giant, I was going to do whatever I had to to ensure that getting through those shields would be a bitch.
I quickly discarded my plasma mortars as options, I didn’t want to get nearly that close to them. My missiles were easily out, not wanting to throw the sheer amount that would be necessary to ensure hits at this range and with their cruiser's level of point defense.
I also rather quickly decided that Siegebreaker Cannons and my Antimatter weaponry were not only overkill, but also aces that I would want to have at a later time. So, they were out of the question as well. And so, I was left with Railguns and Plasma Casters. I could bring roughly 80 of each to bear on a full forward charge.
Railguns to batter their shields down, Plasma to melt their armor. I began shifting as many assets as I could as deep as possible within my hull, just in case. I was not going to lose hundreds of potential assets and resources just because of one lucky shot, not today at least.
After that, it was a game of waiting. To come around the gas giant and see if they had noticed the gifts that were running cold or not. If they hadn’t I was almost certain of coming out of this without significant damage, if they had there was a chance of real damage.
Here, unlike in my patrol raids, the enemy was ready for me. They weren’t still in the long process of powering up shields to maximum, they weren’t being ambushed (Mostly), they most likely had directed most of their shields to face me as well, and they would be able to fire back of course. This would be no easy fight.
Then again, I’m not any regular Dreadnought. I run faster, more efficiently, more effectively, longer, I hit harder, I react faster, and I think far faster. I don’t hesitate and I don’t have to react to orders. I am the pinnacle of Jelthorian tech in the end of their empire, I could use that in ways they hadn’t thought possible.
Bring it on bitches.
I rounded the planet, to see eighteen ships immediately open fire.
***
Thanks for reading! And just in case, the Glossary link holds the Jelthorian terms of time and distance translations in it, as a reminder just in case. Also, I'm considering saying screw it and simply switching them all to the translations anyways, simply because it's easier...
We'll see.
submitted by DustHurricane to HFY [link] [comments]

[OC] Predicting the 2019-20 Coach of the Year

For those interested, this is part of a very long blog post here where I explain my entire thought process and methodology.
This post also contains a series of charts linked to here.

Introduction

Machine Learning models have been used to predict everything in basketball from the All Star Starters to James Harden’s next play. One model that has never been made is a successful Coach of the Year Predictor. The goal of this project is to create such a model.
Of course, creating such a model is challenging because, ultimately, the COY is awarded via voting and inherently adds a human element. As we will discover in this post, accounting for these human elements (e.g. recency bias, weighing storylines, climate around the team) makes it quite challenging. Having said this, I demonstrate how we can gain insight into what voters have valued in the past, allowing us to propose the most likely candidates quite accurately.

Methods

Data Aggregation

First, I created a database of all the coaches referred to in Basketball Reference's coachs index
Coach statistics were acquired from the following template url:
f'https://www.basketball- reference.com/leagues/NBA_{season_end_year}_coaches.html'
Team statistics were acquired from the following template url:
f'https://www.basketball- reference.com/teams/{team_abbreviation}/{season_end_year}.html'
I leveraged the new basketball-reference-scraper Python module to simplify the process.
After some data engineering that I describe completely in the post, I settled on the following features.
Non numerical data Coach Statistics Team Data
COACH SEASONS WITH FRANCHISE SEASON
TEAM SEASONS OVERALL FG
CURRENT SEASON GAMES FGA
CURRENT SEASON WINS FG%
FRANCHISE SEASON GAMES 3P
FRANCHISE SEASON WINS 3PA
CAREER SEASON GAMES 3P%
CAREER SEASON WINS 2P
FRANCHISE PLAYOFF GAMES 2PA
FRANCHISE PLAYOFF WINS 2P%
CAREER PLAYOFF GAMES FT
CAREER PLAYOFF WINS FTA
COY FT%
ORB
DRB
TRB
AST
STL
BLK
TOV
PF
PTS
OPP_G
OPP_FG
OPP_FGA
OPP_FG%
OPP_3P
OPP_3PA
OPP_3P%
OPP_2P
OPP_2PA
OPP_2P%
OPP_FT
OPP_FTA
OPP_FT%
OPP_ORB
OPP_DRB
OPP_TRB
OPP_AST
OPP_STL
OPP_BLK
OPP_TOV
OPP_PF
OPP_PTS
AGE
PW
PL
MOV
SOS
SRS
ORtg
DRtg
NRtg
PACE
FTr
TS%
eFG%
TOV%
ORB%
FT/FGA
OPP_eFG%
OPP_TOV%
DRB%
OPP_FT/FGA
For obtaining a full description of each statistic, please refer to Basketball Reference's glossary.

Data Exploration

First, I computed the correlation between the COY label and all the other features and sorted them. Here are some of the top statistics that correlate with the award along with their Pearson correlation coefficient.
Statistic Pearson coefficient
CURRENT SEASON WINS 0.21764609944203592
SRS 0.20748396385759718
MOV 0.20740447792956693
NRtg 0.20613382194841318
PW 0.20282119218684597
PL -0.19850434198291064
DRtg -0.12967106743277185
ORtg 0.11896730313375109
As expected, the one of the most important features appears to be CURRENT SEASON WINS.
It is interesting the PW and PL correlate so much. This correlation indicates that not only does performance matter, but disparity between expected performance and reality matters significantly as well.
The weight put towards SRS, MOV, and NRtg also provide insight into how the COY is selected. Apparently, not only does it matter whether a team wins or not, but it also matters how they win. For example, the Bucks are typically winning games at an average of ~13 ppg this year, which would heavily favor them.
The high weight toward SRS(defined as a rating that takes into account average point differential and strength of schedule) indicates that it is even more important how a team performs against other challenging opponents. For example, no one should and does care about the Bucks crushing the Warriors, but they should care if they beat the Lakers.
Let's explore the CURRENT SEASON WINS statistic a little more using a box plot.
Box Plot
It appears coaches need to win ~50+ games for an 82 game season in order to be eligible. The exception being Mike Dunleavy’s minimum win season, there were only 50 games since it was a lockout season. Hence, that explains the outlier case.
Another interesting data point is the unfortunate coach who won the most games, but did not win the award. This turned out to be Phil Jackson, one year after his 72 win season in 1995-96 appeared to underperform by winning only 69 games. This, once again, indicates that the COY award takes into account historical performance. Who won instead? Pat Riley, with 61 wins.
Here are some histograms of the MOV and SRS where the blue plots indicate COY's and orange plots indicate NON-COY's.
As expected, COY’s are expected to dominate their teams and not just defeat them.

Oversampling

Before we begin, there is one key flaw in our dataset to look into. Namely, the two classes are not balanced at all.
Looking into the counts we have 1686 non-COY's and 43 COY's (as expected). This disparity can lead to a bad model, so how did I fix this?

SMOTE Oversampling

SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique) is a method of oversampling to even the distribution of the two classes. SMOTE takes a random sample from the minority class (COY=1 in our case) and computes it k-nearest neighbors. It chooses one of the neighbors and computes the vector between the sample and the neighbor. Next, it multiplies this vector by a random number between 0 and 1 and adds the vector to the original random sample to obtain a new data point.
See more details here.

Model Selection and Metrics

For this binary classification problem, we'll use 5 different models. Each model had its hyperparameters fine tuned using Grid Search Cross Validation to provide the best metrics. Here are all the models with a short description of each one: * Decision Tree Classifier - with Shannon's entropy as the criterion and a maximum depth of 37. * Random Forest Classifier - using the gini index as the criterion, maximum depth of 35 and maximum number of features of 5. * Logistic Classifier - using the simple ordinary least squares method * Support Vector Machine - with a linear kernel and C=1000 * Neural Network - a simple 6 layer network consisting of 80, 40, 20, 10, 5, 1 nodes, respectively (chosen to correspond with the number of features). I also used early stopping and 20% dropouts on each layer to prevent overfitting.
The metrics that will be used to evaluate our models are: NOTE that: TP=True Positives (Predicted COY and was a COY), TN=True Negatives (Predicted Not COY and was Not COY), FP=False Positives (Predicted COY and was Not COY), FN=False Negatives (Predicted Not COY and was COY)
  • Accuracy - % of correctly categorized instances ; Accuracy = (TP+TN)/(TP+TN+FP+FN)
  • Recall - Ability to categorize (+) class (COY) ; Recall = TP/(TP+FN)
  • Precision - How many of TP were correct ; Precision = TP/(TP+FP)
  • F1 - Balances Precision and Recall ; F1 = 2(Precision * Recall) / (Precision + Recall)

Results

Model Accuracy Recall Precision F1
Decision Tree 0.963 0.977 0.952 0.964
Random Forest 0.985 0.997 0.974 0.986
Logistic 0.920 0.980 0.870 0.922
SVC 0.959 0.991 0.932 0.960
Neural Network 0.898 1.0 0.833 0.909
In terms of all metrics the Random Forest outperforms all. Moreover, the Random Forest boasts an extremely high recall which is our most important metric. When predicting the Coach of the Year, we want to be able to predict the positive class best, which is indicated by a high recall.

Confusion Matrices

Confusion Matrices are another way of visualization our models' performances. Confusion Matrices are nxn matrices where the columns represent the actual class and the rows represent the class predicted by the model.
In the case of a binary classification problem, we obtain a 2x2 matrix with the true positives (bottom right), true negatives (top left), false positive (top right), and false negatives (bottom left).
Here are the confusion matrices for the Decision Tree, Random Forest, Logistic Classifier, SVC, and Neural Network.
Looking at the confusion matrices we can clearly see the disparity between the Random Forest Classifier and other classifiers. Evidently, the Random Forest Classifier is the best option.

Random Forest Evaluation

So what made the Random Forest so good? What features did it use that enabled it to make such accurate predictions?
I charted the feature importances of the Random Forest and plotted them in order here.
Here are some explicit numbers:
Feature % Contribution
CURRENT SEASON WINS 6.569329857214043
SRS 6.368785568654217
PW 6.059094690243399
NRtg 5.5519116066060175
MOV 4.473122672559081
PL 3.643349558354282
... ...
See more in my blog post.
I found it, once again, interesting that SRS such an important feature. It appears that the Random Forest took the correlation predicted earlier into account.
However, we see that other statistics matter significantly too, like CURRENT SEASON WINS, NRtg, and MOV as we predicted.
Something one wouldn’t anticipate is the contribution of factors outside of this season like FRANCHISE and CAREER features. Along these lines, one wouldn’t expect PW or PL to matter too much, but this model indicates that it is one of the most important features.
Let’s also take a look at where the random forest failed. If you recall from the confusion matrix, there was one instance where a COY was classified as NOT COY.
The point is the 1976 COY who was categorized as not COY. This individual was coach Bill Fitch of the 1975-76 Cleveland Cavaliers. He had a modest win record of 49-33 during an overall down year where the top record was the 54-28 Lakers. Looking at the modern era where 60 win records and obscene statistics are put up on a regular basis, I would say that this is not a terrible error on our model's part.
The reason the model may have classified this as a NOT COY instance is due to the fact that the team's statistics aren't all that impressive, but impressive with respect to THAT year. This lack of incorporating other team performances during the year may be the biggest flaw in our model.

Predicting the next Coach of the Year

Unfortunately, we do not have all the statistics for the current year, but we will obtain what we can and modify the data as we did earlier.
Note that all our data is PER GAME, so for all of these statistics, we will just use the PER GAME statistics up to this point (1/21/20)
The only unrealistic statistic is, then, CURRENT SEASON statistics. We will assume CURRENT SEASON GAMES will be 82 for all coaches and obtain CURRENT SEASON WINS from 538's ELO projections on 1/21/20.
Once again, all other stats were acquired via the basketball_reference_scraper Python package.
Team Probability to win COY
MIL 0.49
TOR 0.46
LAC 0.36
BOS 0.31
HOU 0.23
LAL 0.22
DAL 0.22
MIA 0.17
DEN 0.16
IND 0.13
UTA 0.12
PHI 0.12
DET 0.09
NOP 0.07
WAS 0.05
SAS 0.04
ORL 0.04
CHI 0.04
BRK 0.04
POR 0.03
PHO 0.03
OKC 0.03
CHO 0.03
NYK 0.02
SAC 0.01
MIN 0.01
GSW 0.01
ATL 0.01
MEM 0.0
CLE 0.0
This shows the probability of each coach to win COY in the current season. Let's take a look at each of the candidates in order:
1) Milwaukee Bucks & Mike Budenholzer (49%)
Mike Budenholzer was the COY in the 2018-19 season and, objectively, the top candidate for COY this year as well. The Bucks are on a nearly 70-win pace which would automatically elevate him to the top spot.
However, the model is purely objective and fails to incorporate human elements such as the fact that individuals look at the Bucks skeptically as a 'regular season team'. Voters will likely avoid Budenholzer until there is more playoff success.
Moreover, Budenholzer won last year and voters almost never vote for the same candidate twice in a row. In fact, a repeat performance has never occurred in the COY award.
We see here the flaw in the model to not weight the human elements of recency bias against previous COY's and playoff success sufficiently.
2) Toronto Raptors & Nick Nurse (46%)
The Raptors are truly an incredible story this year. No one expected them to be this good. Even the ELO ratings put them at an expected 56 wins this season and be tied for the 3rd best record in the league behind the Lakers and Bucks.
The disparity between what people expected of the Raptors and what has actually transpired (despite injuries to significant players such as Lowry and Siakam) indicates that Nurse would be a viable candidate for COY.
3) Los Angeles Clippers & Doc Rivers (36%)
Despite the model favoring Doc Rivers, I believe it is unlikely that he wins COY due to the current stories circulating around the Clippers.
Everyone came into the season expecting the Clippers to blow everyone out of the water in the playoffs. No one expects the Clippers to exceed expectations during the regular season, especially with their superstars Kawhi Leonard and Paul George being the role models of load management.
4) Boston Celtics & Brad Stevens (31%)
Brad Stevens is another likely candidate for the COY. Not ony are the Celtics objectively impressive, but they also have the narrative on their side. After last year's disappointing performance, people questioned Stevens, but their newfound success without Kyrie Irving has pushed the blame onto Irving over Stevens. Moreover, significant strides have been made by their young players Jaylen Brown and Jayson Tatum vaulting them into Eastern Conference champion contention.
5) Los Angeles Lakers & Frank Vogel (22%)
Being in tune with the current basketball landscape through podcasts and articles, I can tell that Frank Vogel's campaign for the COY is quite strong. Over and over again we hear praises from players like Anthony Davis and Danny Green on the recent Lowe Post on how happy the Lakers are.
With the gaudy record, spotlight and percolating positive energy around the Lakers, Vogel is a very viable pick for the COY.
6) Dallas Mavericks & Rick Carlisle (22%)
Tied with Vogel is Rick Carlisle and the Dallas Mavericks. The Dallas Mavericks, along with the Raptors, are perhaps the most unexpected successful team this season. Looking at their roster, no one stands out except for Porzingis and Doncic, but they still tout a predicted record of 50-32.
Once again, the disparity between expectations and reality puts Carlisle in high contention of the COY.

Conclusion

Overall, I'm quite pleased with the Random Forest model's metrics. The predictions made by the model for the current 2019-20 appear on point as well. The model appears to favor the disparity between what people expected of teams and their performance on the court quite well. However, the flaw in the model is the lack of weighing recent events properly as we saw with coach Budenholzer.
Once again, predicting the COY is a challenging task and we cannot expect the model to be perfect. Yet, we can gain insight into what voters have valued in the past, allowing us to propose the most likely candidates quite accurately.
submitted by vagartha to nba [link] [comments]

[OC] Predicting the 2019-20 Coach of the Year

For those interested, this is part of a very long blog post here where I explain my entire thought process and methodology.
This post also contains a series of charts linked to here.

Introduction

Machine Learning models have been used to predict everything in basketball from the All Star Starters to James Harden’s next play. One model that has never been made is a successful Coach of the Year Predictor. The goal of this project is to create such a model.
Of course, creating such a model is challenging because, ultimately, the COY is awarded via voting and inherently adds a human element. As we will discover in this post, accounting for these human elements (e.g. recency bias, weighing storylines, climate around the team) makes it quite challenging. Having said this, I demonstrate how we can gain insight into what voters have valued in the past, allowing us to propose the most likely candidates quite accurately.

Methods

Data Aggregation

First, I created a database of all the coaches referred to in Basketball Reference's coachs index
Coach statistics were acquired from the following template url:
f'https://www.basketball- reference.com/leagues/NBA_{season_end_year}_coaches.html'
Team statistics were acquired from the following template url:
f'https://www.basketball- reference.com/teams/{team_abbreviation}/{season_end_year}.html'
I leveraged the new basketball-reference-scraper Python module to simplify the process.
After some data engineering that I describe completely in the post, I settled on the following features.
Non numerical data Coach Statistics Team Data
COACH SEASONS WITH FRANCHISE SEASON
TEAM SEASONS OVERALL FG
CURRENT SEASON GAMES FGA
CURRENT SEASON WINS FG%
FRANCHISE SEASON GAMES 3P
FRANCHISE SEASON WINS 3PA
CAREER SEASON GAMES 3P%
CAREER SEASON WINS 2P
FRANCHISE PLAYOFF GAMES 2PA
FRANCHISE PLAYOFF WINS 2P%
CAREER PLAYOFF GAMES FT
CAREER PLAYOFF WINS FTA
COY FT%
ORB
DRB
TRB
AST
STL
BLK
TOV
PF
PTS
OPP_G
OPP_FG
OPP_FGA
OPP_FG%
OPP_3P
OPP_3PA
OPP_3P%
OPP_2P
OPP_2PA
OPP_2P%
OPP_FT
OPP_FTA
OPP_FT%
OPP_ORB
OPP_DRB
OPP_TRB
OPP_AST
OPP_STL
OPP_BLK
OPP_TOV
OPP_PF
OPP_PTS
AGE
PW
PL
MOV
SOS
SRS
ORtg
DRtg
NRtg
PACE
FTr
TS%
eFG%
TOV%
ORB%
FT/FGA
OPP_eFG%
OPP_TOV%
DRB%
OPP_FT/FGA
For obtaining a full description of each statistic, please refer to Basketball Reference's glossary.

Data Exploration

First, I computed the correlation between the COY label and all the other features and sorted them. Here are some of the top statistics that correlate with the award along with their Pearson correlation coefficient. |Statistic|Pearson coefficient| |--|--| |CURRENT SEASON WINS|0.21764609944203592| |SRS|0.20748396385759718| |MOV|0.20740447792956693| |NRtg|0.20613382194841318| |PW|0.20282119218684597| |PL|-0.19850434198291064| |DRtg|-0.12967106743277185| |ORtg|0.11896730313375109|
As expected, the one of the most important features appears to be CURRENT SEASON WINS.
It is interesting the PW and PL correlate so much. This correlation indicates that not only does performance matter, but disparity between expected performance and reality matters significantly as well.
The weight put towards SRS, MOV, and NRtg also provide insight into how the COY is selected. Apparently, not only does it matter whether a team wins or not, but it also matters how they win. For example, the Bucks are typically winning games at an average of ~13 ppg this year, which would heavily favor them.
The high weight toward SRS(defined as a rating that takes into account average point differential and strength of schedule) indicates that it is even more important how a team performs against other challenging opponents. For example, no one should and does care about the Bucks crushing the Warriors, but they should care if they beat the Lakers.
Let's explore the CURRENT SEASON WINS statistic a little more using a box plot.
Box Plot
It appears coaches need to win ~50+ games for an 82 game season in order to be eligible. The exception being Mike Dunleavy’s minimum win season, there were only 50 games since it was a lockout season. Hence, that explains the outlier case.
Another interesting data point is the unfortunate coach who won the most games, but did not win the award. This turned out to be Phil Jackson, one year after his 72 win season in 1995-96 appeared to underperform by winning only 69 games. This, once again, indicates that the COY award takes into account historical performance. Who won instead? Pat Riley, with 61 wins.
Here are some histograms of the MOV and SRS where the blue plots indicate COY's and orange plots indicate NON-COY's.
As expected, COY’s are expected to dominate their teams and not just defeat them.

Oversampling

Before we begin, there is one key flaw in our dataset to look into. Namely, the two classes are not balanced at all.
Looking into the counts we have 1686 non-COY's and 43 COY's (as expected). This disparity can lead to a bad model, so how did I fix this?

SMOTE Oversampling

SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique) is a method of oversampling to even the distribution of the two classes. SMOTE takes a random sample from the minority class (COY=1 in our case) and computes it k-nearest neighbors. It chooses one of the neighbors and computes the vector between the sample and the neighbor. Next, it multiplies this vector by a random number between 0 and 1 and adds the vector to the original random sample to obtain a new data point.
See more details here.

Model Selection and Metrics

For this binary classification problem, we'll use 5 different models. Each model had its hyperparameters fine tuned using Grid Search Cross Validation to provide the best metrics. Here are all the models with a short description of each one: * Decision Tree Classifier - with Shannon's entropy as the criterion and a maximum depth of 37. * Random Forest Classifier - using the gini index as the criterion, maximum depth of 35 and maximum number of features of 5. * Logistic Classifier - using the simple ordinary least squares method * Support Vector Machine - with a linear kernel and C=1000 * Neural Network - a simple 6 layer network consisting of 80, 40, 20, 10, 5, 1 nodes, respectively (chosen to correspond with the number of features). I also used early stopping and 20% dropouts on each layer to prevent overfitting.
The metrics that will be used to evaluate our models are: NOTE that: TP=True Positives (Predicted COY and was a COY), TN=True Negatives (Predicted Not COY and was Not COY), FP=False Positives (Predicted COY and was Not COY), FN=False Negatives (Predicted Not COY and was COY)
  • Accuracy - % of correctly categorized instances ; Accuracy = (TP+TN)/(TP+TN+FP+FN)
  • Recall - Ability to categorize (+) class (COY) ; Recall = TP/(TP+FN)
  • Precision - How many of TP were correct ; Precision = TP/(TP+FP)
  • F1 - Balances Precision and Recall ; F1 = 2(Precision * Recall) / (Precision + Recall)

Results

Model Accuracy Recall Precision F1
Decision Tree 0.963 0.977 0.952 0.964
Random Forest 0.985 0.997 0.974 0.986
Logistic 0.920 0.980 0.870 0.922
SVC 0.959 0.991 0.932 0.960
Neural Network 0.898 1.0 0.833 0.909
In terms of all metrics the Random Forest outperforms all. Moreover, the Random Forest boasts an extremely high recall which is our most important metric. When predicting the Coach of the Year, we want to be able to predict the positive class best, which is indicated by a high recall.

Confusion Matrices

Confusion Matrices are another way of visualization our models' performances. Confusion Matrices are nxn matrices where the columns represent the actual class and the rows represent the class predicted by the model.
In the case of a binary classification problem, we obtain a 2x2 matrix with the true positives (bottom right), true negatives (top left), false positive (top right), and false negatives (bottom left).
Here are the confusion matrices for the Decision Tree, Random Forest, Logistic Classifier, SVC, and Neural Network.
Looking at the confusion matrices we can clearly see the disparity between the Random Forest Classifier and other classifiers. Evidently, the Random Forest Classifier is the best option.

Random Forest Evaluation

So what made the Random Forest so good? What features did it use that enabled it to make such accurate predictions?
I charted the feature importances of the Random Forest and plotted them in order here.
Here are some explicit numbers:
Feature % Contribution
CURRENT SEASON WINS 6.569329857214043
SRS 6.368785568654217
PW 6.059094690243399
NRtg 5.5519116066060175
MOV 4.473122672559081
PL 3.643349558354282
... ...
See more in my blog post.
I found it, once again, interesting that SRS such an important feature. It appears that the Random Forest took the correlation predicted earlier into account.
However, we see that other statistics matter significantly too, like CURRENT SEASON WINS, NRtg, and MOV as we predicted.
Something one wouldn’t anticipate is the contribution of factors outside of this season like FRANCHISE and CAREER features. Along these lines, one wouldn’t expect PW or PL to matter too much, but this model indicates that it is one of the most important features.
Let’s also take a look at where the random forest failed. If you recall from the confusion matrix, there was one instance where a COY was classified as NOT COY.
The point is the 1976 COY who was categorized as not COY. This individual was coach Bill Fitch of the 1975-76 Cleveland Cavaliers. He had a modest win record of 49-33 during an overall down year where the top record was the 54-28 Lakers. Looking at the modern era where 60 win records and obscene statistics are put up on a regular basis, I would say that this is not a terrible error on our model's part.
The reason the model may have classified this as a NOT COY instance is due to the fact that the team's statistics aren't all that impressive, but impressive with respect to THAT year. This lack of incorporating other team performances during the year may be the biggest flaw in our model.

Predicting the next Coach of the Year

Unfortunately, we do not have all the statistics for the current year, but we will obtain what we can and modify the data as we did earlier.
Note that all our data is PER GAME, so for all of these statistics, we will just use the PER GAME statistics up to this point (1/21/20)
The only unrealistic statistic is, then, CURRENT SEASON statistics. We will assume CURRENT SEASON GAMES will be 82 for all coaches and obtain CURRENT SEASON WINS from 538's ELO projections on 1/21/20.
Once again, all other stats were acquired via the basketball_reference_scraper Python package.
Team Probability to win COY
MIL 0.49
TOR 0.46
LAC 0.36
BOS 0.31
HOU 0.23
LAL 0.22
DAL 0.22
MIA 0.17
DEN 0.16
IND 0.13
UTA 0.12
PHI 0.12
DET 0.09
NOP 0.07
WAS 0.05
SAS 0.04
ORL 0.04
CHI 0.04
BRK 0.04
POR 0.03
PHO 0.03
OKC 0.03
CHO 0.03
NYK 0.02
SAC 0.01
MIN 0.01
GSW 0.01
ATL 0.01
MEM 0.0
CLE 0.0
This shows the probability of each coach to win COY in the current season. Let's take a look at each of the candidates in order:
1) Milwaukee Bucks & Mike Budenholzer (49%)
Mike Budenholzer was the COY in the 2018-19 season and, objectively, the top candidate for COY this year as well. The Bucks are on a nearly 70-win pace which would automatically elevate him to the top spot.
However, the model is purely objective and fails to incorporate human elements such as the fact that individuals look at the Bucks skeptically as a 'regular season team'. Voters will likely avoid Budenholzer until there is more playoff success.
Moreover, Budenholzer won last year and voters almost never vote for the same candidate twice in a row. In fact, a repeat performance has never occurred in the COY award.
We see here the flaw in the model to not weight the human elements of recency bias against previous COY's and playoff success sufficiently.
2) Toronto Raptors & Nick Nurse (46%)
The Raptors are truly an incredible story this year. No one expected them to be this good. Even the ELO ratings put them at an expected 56 wins this season and be tied for the 3rd best record in the league behind the Lakers and Bucks.
The disparity between what people expected of the Raptors and what has actually transpired (despite injuries to significant players such as Lowry and Siakam) indicates that Nurse would be a viable candidate for COY.
3) Los Angeles Clippers & Doc Rivers (36%)
Despite the model favoring Doc Rivers, I believe it is unlikely that he wins COY due to the current stories circulating around the Clippers.
Everyone came into the season expecting the Clippers to blow everyone out of the water in the playoffs. No one expects the Clippers to exceed expectations during the regular season, especially with their superstars Kawhi Leonard and Paul George being the role models of load management.
4) Boston Celtics & Brad Stevens (31%)
Brad Stevens is another likely candidate for the COY. Not ony are the Celtics objectively impressive, but they also have the narrative on their side. After last year's disappointing performance, people questioned Stevens, but their newfound success without Kyrie Irving has pushed the blame onto Irving over Stevens. Moreover, significant strides have been made by their young players Jaylen Brown and Jayson Tatum vaulting them into Eastern Conference champion contention.
5) Los Angeles Lakers & Frank Vogel (22%)
Being in tune with the current basketball landscape through podcasts and articles, I can tell that Frank Vogel's campaign for the COY is quite strong. Over and over again we hear praises from players like Anthony Davis and Danny Green on the recent Lowe Post on how happy the Lakers are.
With the gaudy record, spotlight and percolating positive energy around the Lakers, Vogel is a very viable pick for the COY.
6) Dallas Mavericks & Rick Carlisle (22%)
Tied with Vogel is Rick Carlisle and the Dallas Mavericks. The Dallas Mavericks, along with the Raptors, are perhaps the most unexpected successful team this season. Looking at their roster, no one stands out except for Porzingis and Doncic, but they still tout a predicted record of 50-32.
Once again, the disparity between expectations and reality puts Carlisle in high contention of the COY.

Conclusion

Overall, I'm quite pleased with the Random Forest model's metrics. The predictions made by the model for the current 2019-20 appear on point as well. The model appears to favor the disparity between what people expected of teams and their performance on the court quite well. However, the flaw in the model is the lack of weighing recent events properly as we saw with coach Budenholzer.
Once again, predicting the COY is a challenging task and we cannot expect the model to be perfect. Yet, we can gain insight into what voters have valued in the past, allowing us to propose the most likely candidates quite accurately.
submitted by vagartha to nbadiscussion [link] [comments]

Homecoming Open PTR - General Reddit Feedback

Hi guys, I made this general summary of feedback from here on Reddit, originally to share with CDPR, but I thought it might interest you as well. Note that these are not my opinions (except for the couple of author notes), but my best unbiased attempt at compiling the feedback. Obviously this list is not exhaustive but I think it covers most of the major points.
Mostly compiled from this thread:
https://www.reddit.com/gwent/comments/9lmmbt/homecoming_feedback_open_pt
With some from:
https://www.reddit.com/gwent/comments/9lwcqy/open_ptr_deck_and_discovery_thread/
And some other threads from Reddit.
Extremely Common Feedback - was mentioned in a majority of posts
Frequent Feedback - was mentioned in a moderate amount of posts
Rare Feedback - was mentioned in a small amount of posts

User Experience Summary

Extremely Common Feedback:
● The game looks amazing/beautiful
● Game speed/flow is too slow.
● Introduce auto pass when no options are left.
● Animations are too slow, both in placing the card and card effects
● UI needs an improvement, show more information
● Tags (immune, lock etc) need to be clearer, use text as well as symbols
● Deckbuilder filters and sorting needs improvement. Sort by power esp.
● Game is too dark (visually, not bright enough)
● Don’t move/pan camera between turns
Frequent Feedback:
● Make it clearer who is going first or second, and who’s turn it is (make coin prominent)
● Cards need more weight to them
● Need a deck tracker
● Show point difference
● Good tutorial is needed/better explanation of mechanics
● “Swing cards around” or hover a card rather than point and click
● Card text needs to be easier and simpler to understand
Rare Feedback:
● Like the artists’ names are back
● Align the points with the rows better
● Put an row icon for cards that only activate on a certain row, or make the rows different colours
● Leaders need anti-aliasing
● Hard to tell golds and bronzes apart
● Card Text and Key Word Glossary should be different font

Gameplay Summary

Extremely Common Feedback:
● People like deckbuilding/provision system is great
● Leader variety is fun and interesting
● Order system is fun
● Game has more/too much RNG
Frequent Feedback:
● People like Tactical Advantage, however 5 points may be too much
● 2 rows are good
● Gameplay feels more interactive
● Balancing leaders with mulligans has had mixed response (AN: I think balancing leaders with provision cost might be better than mulligans)
● Feels bad to play low mulligan leader
● Being able to spread out mulligans is good
● Don’t like 10 card limit
● 10 card limit and draws make round 1 and 2 matter less - not fun
● There is a lack of card synergy/archetypes. (AN: I don’t think this valid. People are conflating synergy with parasitic cards. Card synergy in HC is better in my opinion)
● Artifacts are fun/good addition
● Artifacts are too binary
● Too many cards are simple boost/damage (card design is too simple)
● Cards are lacking a lot of flavour - Coral is now discard, Eredin’s ability is generic etc
● Numbers being so low is strange and hard to balance
Rare Feedback:
● 2 rows are bad/could have had 3 rows
● Don’t like the lack of tutors
● Thrive is a cool keyword
● Reach is a cool keyword
● 10 card limit is interesting/people need to adjust

Card Balance Summary

Most feedback did not focus on individual card balance
Extremely Common Feedback:
● Nilfgaard Witcher decks seems very strong
Frequent Feedback:
● Usurper is not fun to play against/unfair
● Reveal is stupid RNG, and possibly OP
Rare Feedback:
● Too many useless “pack filler” bronzes like Wyvern
● Adda is awful
● Gascon is a stupid card
● Many golds are way too conditional

Technical/Bugfix Summary

Incomplete
● Optimization is bad (obvious feedback)
● Rope sound effect continues after ending turn early
● Sweers Ability is to deal 0 dmg and increase the dmg for every card revealed by 0.
● “Artifact”,“Special” and “Unit” don’t work in Deckbuilder filter
● Visual bug where people can’t see menu
● Some leader voice lines echo
● Shupe card text missing
● All Artifacts seem to have zeal, not sure if intended
● Wild Hunt Navigator has wrong card text, seems to still have hidden deathwish
● Cynthia does not preview the power of the Guardian she spawns
● Triss Telekinesis only creates from remaining cards in deck, not starting deck
submitted by TastyGherkin to gwent [link] [comments]

[F] Hunters

I think people on here can skip the glossary :P
Glossary: Imperium: The Imperium of Man is a galaxy-spanning interstellar human empire, the ultimate authority for the majority of the human race in the Milky Way Galaxy in the late 41st Millennium A.D. It is ruled by the living god who is known as the Emperor of Mankind. Emperor: The Emperor of Mankind serves as the ruling monarch of the Imperium of Man, and is described by the Imperial Ecclesiarchy and the Imperial Cult as the Father, Guardian and God of humanity. He has sat immobile, his body slowly crumbling, within the Golden Throne of Terra for over 10,000 standard years. Although once a living man, His shattered, decaying body can no longer support life, and it is kept intact only by the cybernetic mechanisms of the Golden Throne and a potent mind itself sustained by the daily sacrifice of thousands of lives. He created the Space Marines. Space Marines: Genetically engineered Super Soldiers also known as Astartes. They wear Power Armour, a heavy armour connected to their body. Raptors: A Space Marine Chapter that emphasises pragmatism and adaptability. Deathwatch: The Deathwatch serves the Ordo Xenos of the Inquisition and is formed by Space Marines of different chapters. Inquisition: The Inquisition is a secret organisation that exists outside the standard administrative hierarchy of the Imperium of Man. It acts as the secret police force of the Imperium, hunting down any and all of the myriad threats to the stability of the God-Emperor's realm. Xenos: Term to describe aliens. Mechanicus: The Adeptus Mechanicus is the official Imperial name within the Adeptus Terra for the Cult Mechanicus or Cult of the Machine based on Mars which provides the Imperium with its scientists, engineers and technicians. Magos: A Magos Dominus (fem: Magos Domina), known also as a Tech-priest Dominus, is a senior Tech-priest of the Adeptus Mechanicus who commands the Mechanicus' military forces and seek to advance military technology. Dark Eldar: The Dark Eldar, referred to more correctly as the Drukhari or "Dark Ones" in the Aeldari Lexicon, are the forsaken and corrupt Aeldari kindred of the Craftworld Asuryani, an ancient and highly advanced alien race of fey humanoids. Exodites: The Exodites are members of the Aeldari race that rejected the slow degeneration of their ancient civilisation before the Fall of the Eldar, exiling themselves from the core homeworlds of their star-spanning empire to newly-terraformed colony planets called Maiden Worlds. Pain Engine: The Talos Pain Engine is a Drukhari construct and the most widespread of their many so-called Engines of Pain. Festooned with multiple surgical apparatus and grotesque weapons of war, the Talos is a part organic and part mechanical device conceived by the creations of a mad genius.
Haemonculi: The Haemonculi, the Lords of Pain, are horrific and insane Drukhari flesh-sculptors who have lived within the depths of Commorragh for many Terran centuries, if not millennia. They are master torturers, the Drukhari's greatest connoisseurs of pain and terror. Venom: The Venom is a small Drukhari skimmer that is the fastest and most agile aircraft in the Dark Eldar fleet. Solitaire: Solitaires are the strangest and most dangerous of all the Aeldari Harlequins. The Solitaires, as their name implies, are solitary individuals who roam the Webway, only joining a Harlequin masque for a battle or performance when the fancy takes them. Webway: The Webway, also known as the Labyrinth Dimension is an extra-dimensional space partitioned off from the Immaterium millions of Terran years ago by an extremely advanced xenos species known as the Old Ones. Today, it is utilised by the Eldar of the Craftworlds and their Drukhari counterparts for faster-than-light travel. Lance: An ultra-heavy, spaceship mounted energy cannon.
Hunters
The Raptor was ready for his first Deathwatch Mission. After months of special training with his Killteam, Heliacus curiously got a single deployment as his first mission. Him and a Sniper Assassin should provide cover for a xenotech investigation by an Inquisitor and an Adeptus Mechanicus Magos. The Adeptus had found a Maiden World at the outer Galactic Rim thought to be uninhabited. But the Mechanicus cruiser didn’t scan thoroughly enough or didn’t care, being blinded by the vast ressources slumbering in the long mountain ranges of the continents. The world was indeed inhabited by Exodites Eldar, which was later communicated to the Inquisition. Since the Extractor ships focused on the unpopulated contintents there hadn’t been any aggressions yet. A few weeks ago an Ordo Xenos Inquisitor arrived to investigate the local Eldar population, following a rather passive approach, given the unthreatening nature of such a small settlement. First bio scans by the Inquisitor’s vessel indicated a total population of a few thousand individuals scattered across less than a dozen villages. The settlements were located around a central lake, which would be the focus of the investigation, with auspex reads indicating for advanced xenos technology hidden at the bottom of the lake. The assassin was a singular character. Heliacus thought that usually human soldiers should be irritated with Space Marines and not the other way around. As a Raptor Space Marine he was used to an objective approach to his mission with a maximum of prior communication and planning beforehand and he enjoyed to make plans with fellow imperial units. But this time both he and the other soldier had their objectives so there was no need to make any plans. The assassin was ascending silently to the top of the highest hill shadowing the south-western side of the lake. In the distance Heliacus could see the nearest settlement. A village of maybe 100 xenos, that were deemed non-hostile. Nonetheless the two snipers were there just in case. The Space Marine lagged behind to install a defensive mine to guard an approach to their position through some boulders that provided decent cover. In addition to his Shrike Sniper Rifle the Space Marine was equipped with a Bolt Pistol, several grenades and a combat knife. Heliacus was wondering again. His and especially the Assassin’s presence were a mystery to him. The two of them were a rather high-profile bodyguard - even for an inquisitor and a magos. His Raptor nature made him anxious about the obviously missing parts of information. What was the nature of the artifact hidden beneath the surface of the lake? Heliacus switched to Infrared mode on his rifle’s scope, but only saw some water dwelling animals. The anti-grav barque of the magos, the inquisitor and their retinue was just leaving the shore, while the transport vessel, which dropped them off, was climbing to a higher position above the lake doing auspex scans and providing further surveillance. The Eliminator Marine moved his augmented gaze to the western shore, surveilling the closest village. He found a most curious side to behold. On the central Plaza a mystical looking eldar was gathering the inhabitants in a hurrying and slightly panicked manner. Did the savage recognized the transport ship hovering above the lake? Most likely, Heliacus answered himself. But he had no history with eldar and couldn’t tell. Before his death watch deployment his company battled a decades long campaign, facing an Ork Empire in solar systems at the other side of the galactic sector. The exodites were now fleeing the village, running for the forest neighboring the village. Something was at odds since the mechanicun ship above the lake was clearly not a threat to this village. The raptor felt an unease creeping up on him. An unease only fathomable to master tacticians which see a motive behind their adversaries every move. Heliacus magnified his scope to max and looked at the second closest village, seeing minuscule houses, and just as in the other village, also fleeing figures. He voxed to the the Mechanicus craft: “Aquila? This is outpost. Requesting movement readings of all adjacent xenos settlements!” First he got an answer of high pitched binary sounds which left him without a clue.Then the Mechanicus Adept answered in his human language: ”All inhabitants are clearing their settlements. At least the villages around the lake, that our auspexes are currently scanning. Shall I request further scans from the cruiser in orbit, Astartes?” - “No that suffices for the moment.” Just as Heliacus was sure that something unforeseen was about to happen, the humming started. Faint ripples began to form on the surface of the lake. At the side of the Space Marine the Vindicare Assassin made a slight movement of recognition. Both snipers watched helplessly as a giant arch rose from the water, its top climbing in the sky from the western half of the lake. The barge was continuing to approach the middle of the lake where the arch was set to stop. Through the infrared Heliacus saw energies running on the circuits in the structure. He also saw alien signs appearing on the surface. Why on Terra was Heliacus not briefed on this? Arcs of lightning criss-crossed in between the sides of the arch. The Space Marine checked on the inquisitor. He was staring firmly at the approaching xenos structure, but seemed to be unsurprised. The magos beside him appeared to be a little more nervous, but it was impossible to tell exactly - or if his mechadendrites were just skittering around a little faster than usual. “Nothing good comes out of these evil gates.” These were the first words the assassin uttered in Heliacus presence. “ You know this structure?” - “Seen it once before. Our mission was to kill an Eldar witch.” - “Successful mission?”, Heliacus implored. “Yes, but i heard that the commanding Inquisitor couldn’t enjoy the success for long. A few standard months later the eldar presumably got him. But no one saw the killer. He just came and went unseen.” They fell silent again, watching the situation play out. In Between the structure a kind of membrane seemed to form. The inquisitor’s barge arrived at the structure and came to a halt just in front of it. The Magos started probing the structure immediately. “You said it is a gate?” “The eldar don’t use warp travel in our sense of the word.” “I see”, the Space Marine replied and didn’t mean it. Why on Terra was the barque still lingering next to the obviously active structure. “This is just shit planning”, Heliacus erupted and got up. He started sprinting: “I’m getting another angle.” The assassin agreed in silence. 200 meters to the east the Raptor halted just above the boulders which downhill passage he had mined a few minutes ago. Just as Heliacus checked back at their high-profile protegees, the energetic membrane between the arches moved, while releasing half a dozen xenos crafts to the western side of the membrane. The transport of the inquisitor jumped violently as if touched by a sudden burst of energy. The imperial barque just dropped into the water, hit by some feedback released by the xenos structure upon the arrival of the other crafts. Perfect, Heliacus thought to himself, just perfect. Luckily the Mechanicus ship left its elevated position to collect the shipwrecked VIPs, which allowed the Space Marine to check out who came through the portal. Their visitors crafts were crimson and black with wicked spikes and barbs all over them. Baroque weaponry could be seen, mounted by screaming xenos. Dark Eldar! They were pressing for the closest village. Out of the gate, bigger monstrosities were breaching into this world. They moved slower than the first arrivals. The mechanicus vessel had made it halfway to the surface of the lake. “Hurry!”, Heliacus voxed to the ship. “ The Inquisitor's barque is sinking!” One of the floating giants drifted clear of the warpgate, slowly shifting its gaze to the direction of the shipwrecked and the craft coming to their rescue. “ I draw their attention to me assassin - be ready”, Heliacus informed the other sniper. He took aim on the engine of pain which was turning towards their protegees and fired a bolt.The projectile hit the center of what the Space Marine thought of as the head of what he thought was a creature. Instead of dying, the machine-creature went into a frenzy, shooting wildly in all directions. Behind it a singular figure floated from the center of the four monstrosities. The said figure raised its hand slowly and performing the tiniest gesture, the frenzied monster went still. “We have a high profile target - do you see it?”,Heliacus asked the assassin, who had the better angle. “Confirmed”, answered the inquisition agent. The Space Marine waited for the shot but instead heard the cold-hearted killer at his flank whimper in his vox: “That can’t be…” The Raptor pressed on: “Kill it!” The moment was gone as the passive behemoth was now floating right in front of its master shielding him completely from the snipers lines of sight. The other monsters were now facing the hillside in which the two snipers were embedded. “I saw something impossible”, the assassin tried to explain, but was cut short by a incoming volley. Why am I not briefed on this, Heliacus wondered: “Let’s take out the big ones - at least we got their attention.” The Space Marine could not check on the inquisitor as he was now in a deadly shootout and the enemy’s calibre was superior. But he had to keep shooting to divert their attention from the lake. In the periphery he could see the smaller Eldar crafts nearing from his flank, adding to the pressure. The assassin had to take full cover from the lake and switched his attention to the other threat. Heliacus took after him, rolling away from his lake-view position and facing his left side. Before they could decimate the alien speeders, they were upon them. The Vindicare switched to his sidearm diving for a natural trench in his vicinity. Heliacus sprinted into the boulder formation also changing to his bolt pistol. There he had decent cover. He decided to vox the Mechanicus ship:”What is the inquisitor’s status?” A venom speeder rushed over his head shooting and missing his head by only a handspan. “We could need a little fire-support here”, he implied further. They answered:“We have orders to evacuate to the cruiser immediately - you are on your own, or at the cruiser’s mercy!” “Well -”, Heliacus started but focused instead on not dying in that damned boulder formation. He dove between two boulders to get out of another speeder’s way. “You heard that comrade?”, Heliacus asked the assassin - but got no answer. Ten meters downhill the mine detonated - his enemies were already on the ground. Time to move. The Raptor Marine secured his gun and bursted into sprint jumping on a boulder to leap high in the air to then crash into the pilot of a venom pilot. While sliding on the platform at the back of the speeder, he kicked the side gun operator in the back of his knee dropping him beside himself. A quick elbow to the face took care of that. Heliacus drew his knife and finished the pilot which switched off whatever energy source the speeder was running on. The Space Marine managed to jump off before it dove into the shallow waters close to the lakeshore. He waded through the mud searching for cover among the lakeside vegetation. Above the lake the two remaining engines were clinging to the Mechanicus ship which hopefully had already picked up the inquisitor and magos. The Raptor was now close to the village he first saw earlier. He decided to sprint there for better shelter. Other speeders were circling him to harass him with shots but only few connected, unable to penetrate his armor. He stormed in to an exodite house, running to the second floor. He took his aim on the scenery above the lake, searching for the master of the other xenos. He found him hovering close to the his lackeys, observing their destructive work on the ship. Just as Heliacus was about to take the shot, the master suddenly shapeshifted into Heliacus former Sergeant. He looked right at Heliacus with that knowing smile he always sported… just...when….he was alive. Was alive. His Sergeant was a mirage. The Space Marine shook his head and looked for the figure once more. But he was gone. Probably picked up by one of the speeders leaving the area above the lake. Heliacus steadied himself and heard the tiniest of noises on the ground floor. He activated a frak grenade, held it in his hand for a second and threw it down the staircase. A moment later he jumped out of the window, drawing his pistol and knife. The bomb detonated throwing an eldar out of the entrance to the house. Heliacus shot down a speeder pilot who was distracted by the explosion. Xenos were approaching from all directions so he jumped through the window of the next house. “Mothership do you copy?”, Heliacus voxed to the cruiser in orbit. “Roger”, they replied immediately. “Do you have my exact coordinates?” “No, it seems something is interfering with our auspexes.” “Nevermind - I’m in the center of the closest village to the xenos structure. I request a surgical lance to the southern outskirts of said village.” “Copy that.” Ten seconds later a volcano erupted in Heliacus neighbourhood. First he felt a tremendous wave of heat flowing through the house followed by an instant shockwave, shaking the structure to the core. A second wave followed, rippling through the ground , throwing the Space Marine across the room. Heliacus was exhilarated. He just loved to use all the means he had access to in combat. He checked that he still got all his weapons on him and jumped out of the window again. “Hit the centre in thirty seconds”, he ordered. He didn’t wait for a response, but instead focused on getting the empyrean out of that village. He closelined a disoriented eldar, trying to keep up his pace while doing so. The Raptor cleared out of the settlement sprinting through the knee-high grass, knowing that every metre could separate him from certain death. Another Eruption behind him. This time the force of the shockwave ripping through the ground was enough to hurl Heliacus 6 meters through the air, damaging his rifle and generator on impact. He picked himself up, limp-jogging to the nearest cover. As he approached the tree line, two dark eldar popped out of the wood, dragging a child behind them. One of them recognized the Space Marine and reached for his sidearm, while the other was staring at the destruction that was once the village. Heliacus put two gaping holes in both their chests regardless. Before entering the forest, he took a final look over his shoulder, seeing two Speeders drawing closer, and behind them, as if a trick of the brain, a tiny flicker in the membrane between the arcs.
Five minutes later the Raptor was completely lost in the forest and furious about it. He was a Raptor Marine, excelling at the use of deep cover terrain, so it was a blow to his honour not knowing where he was located exactly. Another fact that was adding to his frustration was that the eldar child was following him. He tried to vox the assassin but there was radio silence. He knew that there were a few xenos following him from a safe distance. He needed to ambush them - but how? Heliacus considered his options feverishly, while the eldar child was fading in and out of his peripheral vision. He had an idea. He broke off a branch from a tree he passed, took off his helmet and his coat. He waved to the curious eldar child to come to him and started to gesticulate.
The hunters were watched themselves. Their master grew evermore impatient. Hovering silently behind them he was angry, being robbed of a great price. In his hand he held the head of one of their enemies - a black soldier, who was rare prey himself. Although they couldn’t take him alive. But he was still a human and now they were hunting an Astartes. “I am tired of your cowardice”, a cruel voice behind them whispered. “Get me the prey now, or suffer the consequences.” The mercenaries looked at each other and came to a silent agreement - their chances were still better if they were to engage the astartes. Even if there were only four of them, they had a fighting chance. And if they died, it would be quicker than at the hands of their master. They fell into a trot, losing the awareness they had while walking. Just as the first of the hunters thought he saw the tiniest flicker of a movement to his right, he spotted the Astartes’ helmet straight on. He gestured to his companions and took aim, fired and hit the back of the helmet.
Heliacus burst out of the undergrowth impaling the closest eldar with his knife, while shooting down another. The other two reacted immediately and showered him with shots. He tried to keep the impaled eldar between him and the shooters, but still got hit. He felt a burning sensation at his temple and tumbled down.
When he regained consciousness, Heliacus was hanging in midair, his wrists chained to one of the hulking floating monsters, which attacked the ship earlier. Next to him floated the figure that evoked the image of his mentor, when he tried to shoot it - the xenos master. It was the vilest and ugliest xenos Heliacus could ever imagine. Impossibly thin with additional limbs, but you could still make out the humanoid form of an eldar. Its organs seemed to be outsourced in a sack on its back and a tail-like appendix was hanging between its legs. “You cost me a dear price”, the creature whispered in his direction.” I would have loved to have an inquisitor in my collection.” Heliacus decided that he would not have a conversation with the xenos scum. He looked around and felt somewhat sorry as he saw the eldar child hanging close to him. “We still have to collect a few of our purer cousins and then be on our way to give you your reward for your services to your master.”
Heliacus felt powerless as he witnessed his captors rounded up what seemed to be the family of the child from a nearby cave. It was sobbing silently and the Space Marine let a quiet rage build up inside of him. Good, he thought - focus your hatred. Use it as a weapon when the time is ripe.
It was a sorry procession which headed for the xenos structure on the lake. Like rotting fruit Heliacus and the “pure” eldar were hanging from the pain engine guarded by the remainder of the dark eldar hunting party. The Space Marine surveyed the ruins of the village he ordered to be destroyed. At least he made it a graveyard for some of the enemies of the emperor. As he looked down the path he took to flee the village, he noticed a little wrinkle in reality following them, at the edge of his vision. Like a cloud of mist, he thought. He narrowed his eyes and could sometimes make out the idea of a humanoid figure clad in… was it purple and silver? He couldn’t tell since the colours were distorted in a way he hadn’t seen before. That could be his chance - if the figure was cloaked, it could attack any moment. He let his anger flare up, brought his feet up to the belly of the monster and flexed all his muscles. Heliacus saw the mist passing down beneath him darting up in the air towards a venom speeder, manned by the two eldar that survived his ambush. The silhouette stopped between them and for a split second revealed itself. A hooded figure wearing a mask. Both of his arms reached out to one adversary and they collapsed as if touched by death itself. Heliacus turned around to see if someone noticed, but the master was focused on him. The Raptor pulled at the chains with all his might. It was futile - the chains would not move. They were now floating above the water. The haemonculus chuckled silently - a sound like a dying breath. “Save your energy dog”, it addressed the Marine. The xenos overlord faced him and floated closer. He noticed the killing blow in the last moment. His eyes jumping to the solitaire just when he came into killing range. The harlequin ran down the side of the pain engine and punched his deadly kiss against the skull of the haemonculus, liquifying everything inside. Heliacus grunted satisfied. The solitaire turned off his cloaking device and walked upside down on the belly of the pain engine. He cut lose all of the other eldar with his right hand! How was that possible - maybe some type of power fist, Heliacus thought. The solitaire was always very careful not to touch the other eldar. Lastly he faced the Space Marine, walking slowly towards him. Down below in the water, an eldar woman shouted something at him. The Raptor looked down, seeing a woman holding the child in her arms. The harlequin looked to the child, hesitating for a moment, then cutting the Space Marine lose as well. Heliacus drew in a huge final breath as he knew what was coming now. He fell into the lake and was drawn to the bottom. Thank the emperor he wasn’t far from the shore and thus started to walk slowly towards the surface. After four minutes he finally broke free of the water, greedily sucking in air. In the distance he saw the family walking towards the next village - a tiny figure waving a hand at him. Heliacus activated his distress signal since his vox was lost with the helmet. He wondered what the inquisitor would have to say to his report.
submitted by makrokor to 40kLore [link] [comments]

Basic Tactics for Beginners

With Deadfire releasing, some players seem to be having more trouble than others at the game. For people used to CRPGs, or who played Pillars, we're often finding the game to be too easy even on Path of the Damned... on the other hand, there seem to be a not inconsiderable number of people who didn't play Pillars or who don't really understand CRPG gameplay and are struggling even on lower difficulty levels. In most cases, this seems to be an issue with them not understanding some gameplay basics - so let's help make sure they know how to setup things and operate to make sure they're doing what they can!
First and foremost - remember that the game has tutorials and a glossary for just about everything! You can find this information on a different tab in your quest log.

Gameplay Basics

Gameplay Examples

I don't want this post to get too long, but I do want to provide a simple, concrete example of how to use characters in a typical battle. Let's say it's an early battle and you have a Fighter, Priest, Wizard, and a Brawler (FighteMonk) player character. Let's say you're in a battle against several relatively weak foes, some of which are attacking with bows or guns, and some of which are melee.
submitted by SharktheRedeemed to projecteternity [link] [comments]

RETRO Forth 2019.6 Released

RETRO 2019.6 RELEASE

This release is pretty big, bringing changes and improvements to all areas.

Bugs Fixed and General Improvements

In the build system, I resolved issues that were preventing parallel builds and rebuilding of the image in some cases.
I am now using safer functions (strl*) instead of the more common, but less safe, functions in the interface layers. For systems (Linux) that miss these, I also include a copy of the OpenBSD implementation.
In addition, the retro-extend tool now has cleaner output, reduced memory usage, fixes to buffer overrun possibilities, and support for handling multiple files. Other tools have seen cleanups as well.
There have been numerous smaller fixes throughout.

Core Words in the Standard Library

This brings a significant number of new words and some changes. to the existing ones.
I removed the deprecated set:from-results and both d:words and d:words-with (more on these in a bit). I added if;, -if;, hook, set-hook, unhook, (, and ) to the top level namespace. In the strings (s:) set, I added two words: s:begins-with? and s:ends-with?.
The biggest change to the standard library is the renaming of set:. These words create and work with ordered arrays of data, not mathematical sets. I have renamed the namespace prefix to a: to better reflect this. I've also considerably expanded the words, adding a:append, a:begins-with?, a:chop, a:copy, a:ends-with?, a:eq?, a:-eq?, a:index-of, a:left, a:middle, a:prepend, a:right, and a:to-string.
I will also mention the hook word here. This release adds proper support for marking words as being hooks, which can be patched and restored. (This is similar to RETRO11, but in the current RETRO words must start with hook to become hookable). Of note is that the c:put primitive is a hookable word.

Interface Layers

This has seen some simplifications and also some expansions.
ri
The ri interface is gone. (This was a fullscreen setup using curses). It has been rolled into rre as a startup option and no longer requires curses.
rre
The only interface built by default is rre. This simplifies the installed application set, and has made it easier for me to focus on improving it. (As with 2019.1, the rre binary is named retro)
The I/O has been split out more cleanly into separate files. I have expanded functionality in several places.
For those using floating point, the vocabulary is now much larger. I've added a second stack and many new words. I also improved f:tuck and f:over.
Another important change is that the u: namespace for encoding floats to integers is now e:, and has been expanded as well.
Users of the unix: namespace will find a smaller set of new words. The new words are unix:count-files-in-cwd, unix:for-each-file, unix:get-cwd, and unix:time. I've also added the clock: words that were formerly only on iOS, and a random number generator.
Other bits here include support for using a non-built-in image file, saving the image to a file, improved scripting argument handling, and cleanups to the command line arguments.
I also moved the d:words, d:words-with, and an all new d:words-beginning-with into the rre sources instead of the standard library.
retro-compiler
Brand new in this release is the retro-compiler, a tool to compile a new executable from your RETRO source. This is only for BSD and Linux systems using ELF executables, and will need the objcopy tool to be in your path to work.
Example:
 (Hello.forth) :hello 'hello,_world! s:put nl ; sh# retro-compiler hello.forth hello sh# ./a.out 
The generated application bundles a copy of the VM and the image file into a single application that you can freely distribute. (The compiled application does not need retro or objcopy to work). This has most, but not all, of the I/O systems provided by rre.
native
I'm particularly pleased with this. RETRO now has an up to date, functional implementation that can run on standard x86 hardware.
Of note: this still uses Nga, but the I/O device model allows the image to access the physical RAM, I/O ports, and devices. I still have a lot to do, but it has drivers in Forth for port I/O, serial port, parallel port, the CMOS RTC, ATA hard disks, and a VGA textmode display. It also includes a test copy of the block editor. The keyboard driver is still in assembly, but it does now have a Dvorak option.

Documentation

The documentation was a major focus. In this release I've added a new book, combining the previous pieces while expanding on them and adding new text on many areas.
In addition to this, I've cleaned up the glossary tool, adding new export formats (including HTML). I also added a new tool, retro-describe for looking up glossary entry data. This can be used with a simple shell script (tools/document.sh) to generate a glossary file of just the words used in a RETRO source file.
The glossary itself has been updated to add the new words and correct numerous errors in existing entries.
Finally, the major tools each have a corresponding man page now, which should be useful to BSD and Linux users.

Examples

RETRO has gained 31 new examples. These cover a range from code snippets to small applications. I think they'll be helpful to anyone seeking to learn RETRO.
I also fixed some errors in existing examples and added the improvements my users have submitted.

Thanks

My thanks go out to everyone who has provided feedback, code, and support as I worked on this. Special thanks to Kiyoshi Yoneda who has made considerable contributions and improvements in the examples and floating point support and WilhelmVonWeiner who helped with the random number generator.
Links:
Gopher:
submitted by _crc to Forth [link] [comments]

Full container/vm documentation available (unreleased but copied/pasted here)

Sourced from here but copied/pasted here for ease of view. It's not merged yet but we will be able to find it here when finished.

Running Custom Containers Under Chrome OS

Welcome to the containers project where we support running arbitrary code inside
of VMs in Chrome OS.
This is a heavily-technical document, but more user-friendly information will be
coming in the future.
We won't get into technical details for specific projects as each one already
has relevant documentation.
We instead will link to them for further reading.
[TOC]

Overview

There are many codenames and technologies involved in this project, so hopefully
we can demystify things here.
Crostini is the umbrella term for making Linux application support easy to use
and integrating well with Chrome OS.
It largely focuses on getting you a Terminal with a container with easy access
to installing whatever developer-focused tools you might want.
It's the default first-party experience.
The Terminal app is the first entry point to that environment.
It's basically just crosh.
It takes care of kicking off everything else in the system that you'll interact
with.
crosvm is a custom virtual machine monitor that takes care of managing KVM,
the guest VM, and facilitating the low-level (virtio-based) communication.
Termina is a VM image with a stripped-down Chrome OS linux kernel and
userland tools.
Its only goal is to boot up as quickly as possible and start running containers.
Many of the programs/tools are custom here.
In hindsight, we might not have named it one letter off from "Terminal", but so
it goes.
Maitred is our init and service/container manager inside of the VM, and is
responsible for communicating with concierge (which runs outside of the VM).
Concierge sends it requests and Maitred is responsible for carrying those
out.
Garcon runs inside the container and provides integration with
Concierge/Chrome for more convenient/natural behavior.
For example, if the container wants to open a URL, Garcon takes care of
plumbing that request back out.
Sommelier is a Wayland proxy compositor that runs inside the container.
Sommelier provides seamless forwarding of contents, input events, clipboard
data, etc... between applications inside the container and Chrome.
Chrome does not run an X server or otherwise support the X protocol; it only
supports Wayland clients.
So Sommelier is also responsible for translating the X protocol inside the
container into the Wayland protocol that Chrome can understand.
You can launch crosh and use the vmc command to create new VMs manually.
It will only run Termina at this point in time.
You can use [vsh] to connect to a VM instance and use LXC to run
containers.

Quickstart

Here's a quick run down of how to get started.
If you're interested in Android Studio, check out their documentation.

Runtime Features

OK, so you've got your container going, but what exactly can you expect to work?

Missing Features

There's a lot of low-hanging fruit we're working on fleshing out.
There are more things we're thinking about, but we're being very
careful/cautious in rolling out features as we want to make sure we aren't
compromising overall system security in the process.
The (large) FAQ below should hopefully hit a lot of those topics.

Security

While running arbitrary code is normally a security risk, we believe we've come
up with a runtime model that addresses this.
The VM is our security boundary, so everything inside of the VM is
considered untrusted.
Our current VM guest image is also running our hardened kernel to further
improve the security of the containers, but we consider this a nice feature
rather than relying on it for overall system security.
In this model, the rest of the Chrome OS system should remain protected from
arbitrary code (malicious or accidental) that runs inside of the containers
inside of the VM.
The only contact with the outside world is via crosvm, and each channel
talks to individual processes (each of which are heavily sandboxed).

User Data In The Container

With the shift to cloud services, current security thinking highlights the fact
that getting account credentials (e.g. your Google/Facebook passwords) is way
more interesting than attacking your desktop/laptop.
They are not wrong.
The current VM/container Chrome OS solution does not currently improve on
this.
Put plainly, anything entered into the container is the responsibility of the
user currently.
So if you run an insecure/compromised container, and then type your passwords
into the container, they can be stolen even while the rest of the Chrome OS
system remains secure.

Persistence

Linux apps do not survive logout (since they live in the user's encrypted
storage).
They also do not automatically start at login (to avoid persistent attacks),
nor can they automatically run at boot (without a login session) since they
wouldn't be accessible (they're in the user's encrypted storage).

Lifecycles

Once you've got the Terminal installed (which takes care of installing all
the other necessary components like Termina), the system is ready to use.
By virtue of having things installed, nothing starts running right away.
In that regard, when you log out, everything is shutdown and killed, and when
you login, nothing is automatically restarted.
When you run the Terminal, the Termina will be started automatically,
and the default Crostini container will be started in that.
You can now connect to the container via SSH or SFTP (via the Files app).
Similarly, if you run a Linux application diretly (e.g. pinned to your shelf
or via the launcher), the Termina will be started automatically, and
the container that application belongs to will be launched.
There's no need to run Terminal manually in these situations.
When you close all visible appliations, the VM/containers are not shutdown.
If you want to manually stop them, you an do so via crosh and the vmc
command.
Similarly, if you want to spawn independent VMs, or more containers, you can
do so via crosh and the vmc and vsh commands.

Device Support

While we would like to be able to bring this work to all Chromebooks, the kernel
and hardware features required limit where we can deploy this.
A lot of features we use had to be backported, and the further back we go, the
more difficult & risky it is to do so.
We don't want to compromise system stability and security here.

Supported Now

The initial platform is the Google Pixelbook (eve) running an Intel processor
(x86_64) with Linux 4.4.

Hardware Requirements

We are not planning on requiring a minimum amount of RAM, storage, or CPU speed,
but certainly the more you have of each of these, the better off things will
perform.
You will need a CPU that has hardware virtualization support.

Glossary

FAQ

Where can I chat with developers?

All Chromium OS development discussions happen in our
chromium-os-dev Google Group.
Feel free to ask anything!

Where can I file feature requests?

As a nascent project, we've got a lot on our plate and planning on releasing,
so it'd be nice to hold off for now and check back in after a few Chrome OS
releases.
Feel free to chat/ask on the mailing list above in the meantime.
Once we are in a more stable place, you can use our issue tracker.
See the next question for details.

Where can I file bugs?

Please first make sure you're using the latest dev channel.
A lot of work is still ongoing.
Next, please make sure the issue isn't already known or fixed.
You can check the existing bug list.
If you still want to send feedback, you can [file a feedback
report]feedback-report and include #crostini in the description.
Feedback about any part of Chrome OS can be filed with "Alt-Shift-i".
If you still want to file a bug with the developers, use this link to
route to the right people.

Can I boot another OS like Windows, macOS, Linux, *BSD, etc...?

Currently, no, you can only boot our custom Linux VM named Termina.
See also the next few questions.

Can I run my own VM/kernel?

Currently, no, you can only boot Termina which uses our custom Linux kernel
and configs.
Stay tuned!

Can I run a different Linux distro?

Of course!
The full LXD command line is available, and the included images remote has lots
of other distros to choose from.
However, we don't test with anything other than the default container that we
ship, so things may be broken when running another distro.

I'm running , how do I get {gui apps, launcher icons, etc...}?

Sommelier and Garcon binaries are bind-mounted into every container, so no
need to install or cross-compile.
The systemd units and config files from cros-container-guest-tools will start
these daemons in a systemd user session.
It's also a good idea to run loginctl enable-linger to allow these to
remain running in the background.

Am I running Crostini?

If you're using the Terminal app, or programs in the default container we
provide that includes our programs to ease integration (e.g. Sommelier), then
yes.
If you're running your own container or VM, then no.

How do I share files between Chrome OS & the container?

Using Secure Shell, you can set up a SFTP mount to the remote container and
then browse via the Files app.
Work is on going to automate this step by default.

Can I access files when the container isn't running?

Currently, the container must be running in order to access its content.

Can I install custom kernel modules?

Currently, no, Termina does not include module support.
That means trying to use software that requires building or loading custom
kernel modules (e.g. VirtualBox) will not work.
See the next question too.

Can I mount filesystems?

Currently, no (*).
The containers are implemented using Linux user namespaces and those are quite
restricted (by design).
We're looking into supporting FUSE though.
(*): Technically you can mount a few limited pseudo filesystems (like
memory-backed tmpfs), but most people aren't interested in those.

Can I run a VM inside the VM?

Currently, no, nested KVM is not supported.
You could run qemu-system to emulate the hardware and boot whatever OS you want
inside of that.
Unfortunately, it'll be quite slow as QEMU won't be able to utilize KVM for
hardware acceleration.

Can I run a container inside the container?

Yes!
You'll probably need to install the relevant packages first for whatever
container format you want to run.

What container formats are supported?

Termina currently only supports LXC directly.
We're aware of Kubernetes/DockeOCI/rkt/etc... and hope to make them all easy
to use.
See the previous question for a workaround in the mean time.

What architecture works on my system?

Since everything is all native code execution, it depends on the device you
have.
If you don't know what device you have, you can find this out in two different
ways:
If you see x86_64, you'll be able to run code compiled for Intel/AMD
(32-bit/64-bit/x32 should all work).
If you see arm (or something similar like armv7l) or aarch64, you'll be
able to run code compiled for ARM/ARM64.

Can I run other architectures?

There is currently no integrated support for running e.g. ARM code on an Intel
system, or vice-versa.
You could handle this yourself (e.g. by using qemu-user), but if you're familiar
with qemu-user, then you already knew that :).

How many VMs can I run?

You can spawn as many as your system can handle (RAM/CPU-wise).
They are all independent of each other.

How many containers can I run?

You can spawn as many as your system can handle (RAM/CPU-wise).
Each VM instance can host multiple containers.

Can I run programs that keep running after logout?

Nope!
All VMs (and their containers) are tied to your login session.
As soon as you log out, all programs are shutdown/killed by design.
Since all your data lives in your encrypted home, we wouldn't want that to
possibly leak when you logout.
For more details, see the Security section in this doc.

Can I autorun programs when I login?

Nope!
All VMs (and their containers) need to be manually relaunched.
This helps prevent persistent exploits.
For more details, see the Security section in this doc.

Can I autorun programs when I boot?

Nope!
See the previous questions, and the Security section.

Are my VMs/containers/data synced/backed up?

Currently, no, nothing is synced or backed up.
You're responsible for any data going into the containers.
We hope to improve this situation greatly.

Can I use IPv6?

Unfortunately, only IPv4 is currently supported.
Yes, we're fully aware that everything should be IPv6-compatible in 2018.
We're working on it.

Can I access layer 2 networking?

Currently, no, networking access is only at layer 3 (i.e. IP).
So you won't be able to do any bridging or lower level fun stuff.
It's not clear if/when this will change.
Bridging with the outside world is difficult with WiFi, and not many devices
have Ethernet connections.
We could support layer 2 between containers, but it's not clear how many people
want this in order to justify the effort involved.

Can I access hardware (e.g. USB/Bluetooth/serial)?

Currently, no, but we are working on it.
Stay tuned!

Can I run graphical applications?

Yes, but currently things are unaccelerated.
So if you're looking to play the latest Quake game, it's not going to work well.
See the next few questions.

Can I run Wayland programs?

Yes, and in fact, these are preferred!
Chrome itself deals with Wayland clients heavily, and so you're much more
likely to have things "just work" if you upgrade.

Can I run X programs?

Yes, via our Sommelier helper.
We're still working out some compatibility kinks, and it probably will never be
as perfect as running an X server, but with the community moving to Wayland,
it should be good enough.

Why are windows sometimes tiny/fuzzy?

While Chrome supports high DPI displays, many Linux applications don't.
When a program doesn't properly support DPI scaling, poor results follow.
Currently we expose the native resolution and DPI directly to applications.
If they show up tiny or fuzzy, it's because they don't support scaling properly.
You should report these issues to the respective upstream projects so that,
hopefully someday, it'll "just work".
In the mean time, Sommelier exposes some runtime settings so you can set the
scale factor on a per-program basis to workaround the misbehavior.
Check out Sommelier's documentation for more details.
If you're applying a system wide zoom or otherwise changing the default display
resolution, we attempt to scale the application output to match.
This can lead to blurry results.
You can adjust the resolution of your display, or tweak things via Sommelier
(see above for more details).

Can I run Windows programs?

Sure, give WINE a try.
Compatibility will largely depend on WINE though, so please don't ask us for
support.

Can I run Steam?

Sure, give Steam a shot.
Just remember that without accelerated graphics or sound, it's probably not
going to be too much fun.

Can I run macOS programs?

Probably not.
You could try various existing Linux solutions, but chances are good that they
are even rougher around the edges.

Can I develop Android apps (for ARC++)?

Check out the Android Studio site for more details on this.

Why implement crosvm from scratch (instead of using QEMU/kvmtool/etc...)?

We have nothing against any of these other projects.
In fact, they're all pretty great, and their designs influenced ours.
Most significantly, they did more than we needed and did not have as good a
security model as we were able to attain by writing our own.
While crosvm cannot do everything those other projects can, it does only what
we need it to.
For more details, check out the crosvm project.

Why run VMs? Aren't containers secure?

While containers often isolate themselves (via Linux namespaces), they do not
isolate the kernel or similar system resources.
That means it only takes a single bug in the kernel to fully exploit the system
and steal your data.
That isn't good enough for Chrome OS, hence we put everything inside a VM.
Now you have to exploit crosvm via its limited interactions with the guest,
and crosvm itself is heavily sandboxed.
For more details, see the Security section in this doc.

Don't Android apps (ARC++) run in a container and not a VM?

Unfortunately, yes, Android apps currently run only in a container.
We try to isolate them quite a bit (using namespaces, seccomp,
alt syscall, SELinux, etc...), but at the end of the day, they have direct
access to many syscalls and kernel interfaces, so a bug in there is reachable
via code compiled with Android's NDK.

If Android apps are in a container, why can't users run code too?

We don't usually accept a low security bar in one place as a valid reason to
lower the security bar everywhere.
Instead, we want to constantly raise the security bar for all code.

Are Android apps (ARC++) going away?

There are no plans to merge the two projects.
We share/re-use a lot of the Chrome bridge code though, so it's not like we're
doing everything from scratch.

Don't VMs slow everything down?

It is certainly true that VMs add overhead when compared to running in only
a container or directly in the system.
However, in our tests, the overhead is negligble to the user experience, and
well worth the strong gains in system security.
For more details, see the Security section in this doc.

Why run containers inside the VM? Why not run programs directly in the VM?

In order to keep VM startup times low, we need Termina to be as slim as
possible.
That means cutting out programs/files we don't need or are about.
We use SquashFS to make the image smaller and faster to load, but it means
the image/root filesystem is always read-only.
Further, the versions of programs/libraries we ship are frequently newer than
other distros (since we build off of Gentoo), and are compiled with extra
security flags.
It would also make it more difficult to have a stateless image that always
worked and would be immune from user mistakes.
Altogether, it's difficult to support running arbitrary programs, and ends
up being undesirable.
Forcing everything into a container produces a more robust solution, and
allows users to freely experiment without worry.
Also, we love turtles.

Can I disable these features?

Administrators can control access to containers/VMs via the management
console, so enterprise/education organizations that want to limit this can.
Initially there is a "Linux (Beta)" option under the standard Chrome OS
settings, but the long-term plan is to remove this knob so things work
on-demand.
At which point, there will be no knob for unmanaged devices.
submitted by -nbsp- to Crostini [link] [comments]

Streamlined Beginner's Guide

I was making edits to A Beginner Guide written by a Beginner and Updated by a Friend when it gave me the error message that the post had too many characters. I decided it was honestly too wordy. I hope that the clarity of the message was not lost during the chopping process. Light suggestions and/or questions are welcome. I added this to the wiki as well after updating it due to your suggestions :)
The guide starts with day 1 "need to know" information then proceeds with Characters you Want, the Daily Grind, More to Grind, Comic Cards, Character Optimization, and finally a Quick Start Glossary.
 
First Month Goals
 
Content Difficulty Progression
This is a rough estimation of the progression of the game using the character level as a reference.
1-50 50-60 60+ 60++ 60+++
Story Mode Ch.1-8 Chapters 9-10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
VS: Easy/Normal VS: Hard World Boss iThanos World Boss Ultimate
- - SL 1-15 SL 15-25 -
- - Strange Epic Quest Wolvie Epic Quest -
AB AB AB clear XAB clear XAB score chasing
TL TL/AC TL/AC TL/AC TL/AC
Cards: - 4* cards with ~30% SCD and 20+ Ignore Defense 4*/5*/6* cards w/SCD, Ignore Defense, and Attack 6* cards with ~30% SCD, ~30% Ignore Defense, and +30% All Attack
Villain Siege, Alliance Battle, TimeLine, Alliance Conquest, ShadowLand.
 
Starter Team: 6* Sharon Rogers, Loki, and any top character of your choice
This can be done with the 6* selector (day 1), the 6* selector (day 7), and "Hero's Journey".
A "Six Star Selector" allows for you to choose a character from a menu and that character is immediately 6* regardless of whether you recruited them or not.
For your 2nd and 3rd starter characters there are conflicting recommendations which to me proves it doesn't really matter who you choose, but be warned that not all characters are created equally so it is best to choose from these or the difficult to farm "Facetank" characters listed further down.
Check out the analysis/discussion from "Starter toons: Sharon Rogers and _________?" and decide for yourself, but definitely get Sharon Rogers.
 
After your first "failed" mission it is highly recommended to get 4 star Iron Fist.
Get his Hobo (netflix) Uni when you have the chance.
 
Farm Enough Story Mission Bios to 6 Star Cap, Widow, and Iron Man.
Both Cap and Iron Man will be very useful additions to your team. Black Widow can be good, but as a beginner will be mostly useful as a striker in the Corvus Glaive World Boss battle.
You can get Age of Ultron unis for gold.
 
Use your 3 day trial of bio subscription for "Paywall" characters
I would recruit Enchantress, Agent Venom, and Kid Kaiju who are all still useful at T1. I would only use them on Carnage if you plan on paying for a bio subscription to T2 him (need ~366 bios to max gears). You will still need to get Mega Rank Up Tickets (2600 Crystals on weekend) to rank them up.
T2 Carnage > Agent Venom > Kid Kaiju > Enchantress > Ironheart > Hyperion > T1 Carnage
 
The best deals for real money include Stark Stash, Bio Subscription, VIP Package, and S.H.I.E.L.D.
Prices vary slightly depending on where you live and whether you use android or Apple (android is cheaper), but these are generally the best deals:
You don't need to spend money to be successful in this game, but I would highly recommend at least getting the Stark Stash (or bio sub) to get to VIP 1 (200 Crystals) for increased gold in Co-Op. You'll also hear a lot about "tag heals" which is unlocked at VIP 3 (2300 crystals total), and "Heroic Rifts" which are unlocked at VIP 10 (99,000 crystals total).
The best deals for Crystals include on sale uniforms (750), Mega Rank Up Tickets (2600), and "Deluxe" pack (6600).
 
Get in as high level alliance as you can (ideally 24+)
Use the weekly recruitment thread to join an Alliance for camaraderie, alliance stat boosts, alliance member rifts, energy rewards, and Alliance Battle/Conquest. Note that the stat boosts from Alliances You may see Alliance requirements including days of activity, Alliance Battle score, and Alliance Conquest participation. Even so, there are so many alliances out there that the odds are good that you can find a good balance between casual and competitive. There will also be a variety in beginner and veterans. But let's be honest, veterans need beginners around to tell them that they are awesome :)
 
Don't go "all in" on Epic Quests (Dr. Strange and Wolverine/Jean), rather dip your feet!
Dr. Strange, Wolverine, and Jean are all amazing, but the cost is significantly above a beginner's paygrade. I would however recommend completing enough quests to start farming Baron Mordo (need 50 Red Norns and 200 Blue Norns) and Rogue/Beast (need 100 Dimension Debris and 100 Red Norns). Rogue (speed) and Beast (combat) are perfect complements to your Sharon/Loki starter pack. For more information: Dr. Strange Epic Quest Guide and Rise of the X-men Epic Quest guide.
 
 

Characters and why you want them:

Facetank chars - Low skill threshold to defeat most content. High priority characters bolded.
Character Survivability Farmability
Sharon Rogers iframes + damage immunity Use starter selectors. Otherwise Bio Selectors.
Loki shield + clones = RUN Viable starter option. Otherwise Dimension Rift "Chitauri Invasion"
Carnage iframes + invincibility @ T2 Bio $ubscription only. Use Rank up Tickets and save bios for gears.
Agent Venom iframes + shield + invincibility Bio $ubscription only. Use Rank up Tickets and save bios for gears.
Enchantress shield, and can permanently charm world bosses Bio $ubscription only. Use Rank up Tickets and save bios for gears.
Kid Kaiju iframes + summons + shield Bio $ubscription only. Use Rank up Tickets and save bios for gears.
Elsa iframe + damage immunity @ T2 Villain Siege Chaos Tokens
Kate Bishop iframes + stuns Villain Siege "Hard"
Captain Marvel damage immunity Timeline Honor Tokens
Crystal snare attacks + shield Special Mission, Inhumans "Crystal Palace"
Songbird snare attacks + shield Special Mission, New Avengers "Baked Alaska"
Groot Heal; Baby uni: iframes Dimension Rift "Bark is Worse than Bite"
Yellow Jacket several iframes Dimension Rift "Amazingly Interesting Voyage"
Wasp damage immunity "bubble" + iframe Dimension Rift "Growth Spurt"
Baron Mordo iframe + stuns + shield Epic Quest, Memory Mission "Road to the Monastery"
Ancient One invincibility + heal Epic Quest, Memory Mission "Monastery in Trouble"
Hellstorm immunity + summon Epic Quest, Dark Dimension "Increasing Darkness"
Rogue damage immunity (skill/leadership) + iframes + heal Epic Quest: Rise of the X-men, Tracking "Going Rogue"
Beast stun + snare + iframe Epic Quest: Rise of the X-men, Tracking "Friends and Enemies"
Storm stun + guard breaks + iframes Epic Quest: Rise of the X-men, Tracking "Weathering the Storm"
Cyclops stun + guard breaks + damage immunity + iframe Epic Quest: Rise of the X-men, Tracking "Blindsided!"
Magneto bind + guard breaks + shield + iframes 6600 crystals for "Deluxe" pack; "Mutual Enemy"
Captain America damage immunity + iframe (uni) Story Mission 1-1, 3-10, and 5-6
Black Widow dodge + guard breaks + stun (uni) Story Mission 1-4, 2-6, 3-9, and 5-4
Iron Fist uni: invincibility + iframe; dodge @ T2 Story Mission 4-5 and 6-5.
Elektra iframes + stun Story Mission 4-6, 7-2, and 7-5
Black Panther damage immunity + iframes Story Mission 8-1
Thor guard breaks + shield Story Mission 8-9, 12-5, and 12-8
Blackbolt guard breaks + damage immunity @ T2 Story Mission 8-10
GR (Robbie Reyes) iframes + shield Bio Selectors.
Mantis iframes + heal + fear bubble Bio Selectors.
Red Hulk guard breaks + heal + damage immunity (uni) Bio Selectors.
Silk shield + webbing Bio Selectors.
 
Leadership characters - Only need ranking and mastery to be helpful. Characters worth further investment are marked with ‡
Boost Character(s)
48% Damage to Male She-Hulk (uni = +55%)
45% Energy Attack Hela, Ironheart
45% Energy Attack for Blast Ancient One‡, Star-lord (uni = +50%)
45% Physical Attack Gorgon, Beast
40% Energy Attack Ebony Maw
45% All Attack Magneto‡ (for X-men)
36% All Attack Moon-Girl‡
24% All Attack Wiccan‡, Sin, Punisher, Ultron, Shang-Chi‡, Hyperion‡, Hogan, Cyclops‡ (+24% All Defense)
30% Energy Attack Crystal‡, Singularity, Lash, Captain Marvel‡, Modok, Blackbolt‡
30% Physical Attack Elsa‡, Deathlok, War Machine, Crossbones, Winter Soldier, Ulik‡, Hulk
18% All Attack, 18% All Defense, 6% Speed Wasp‡
36% All Attack for Universal Ronan‡ (+36% all defense), Medusa‡
60% Lightning Damage Lincoln
60% Fire Damage Satana‡, Red Hulk‡
60% Cold Damage Misty Knight
 
Support characters - Generally cannot be main damage dealers unless marked
 

The Daily Grind:

Complete each of the daily "challenges". Most of these modes should be done during Hot Time (reduced cost and increased rewards) which occurs twice a day for 3 hours (6 AM/PM Pacific Time). Most can also be played on "auto" by using clear tickets. For Story missions you can "autoclear" which will insta-clear the level giving you gold and shield/alliance experience, but it will not give your characters experience.
Story missions (1+/day):
Complete story mode chapters up to 10 as soon as you can. You can level characters more quickly using higher levels. After you have done such, here's a list of story mode characters (alphabetical) that you might want to get:
 
Special missions (20 min/day):
Rank New Avengers Inhumans
1 Songbird Crystal
2 Wiccan Gorgon
3 White Tiger Moon Girl
4 Squirrel Girl Maximus
5 Hulkling Karnak
 
Daily Missions (2/day)
Fairly easy missions with great rewards including: gold and the option for Iso-8/nornstones, more gold/experience chips, or M'kraan Shards (X-men material).
 
Villain Siege (1-3/day)
This is a fossil of previous “end-game” content. It is more important that you win the battle then you use all of the recommended characters. If you know it will take you two tries, then use a team with NO recommended characters first, followed by one with 2-3 of the recommended characters.
Use the Chaos Tokens for: Elsa >> Chaos Custom Gear Chest/Chaos Chest > Ant-man > Lash
 
Timeline (1-10/day)
A "one vs. one" matchup that gives honor tokens for each battle (win or lose) and crystals at the end of the week for how high you scored in comparison to others. Note that your characters start with all skills on cooldown while the enemy's do not. At least do one a day, but it would be worth it to do all of them.
Use the Tokens on Captain Marvel > Warwolf > Honor Card Chest/Honor Chest > Gamora
 

More to Grind

Alliance Battle
Great source of gold, norns, and bios. Here's a chart of who to use from my Alliance Battle Guide:
Day Main Damage Leader Support Notes
Open (x2; reset day) Loki, Sharon, Hellstorm, Strange She-Hulk, Ancient One, Gorgon, Hela Warwolf (T2), Coulson (T2), Groot (T2) save combat/villain (i.e. Carnage) for XAB
Combat Hobo Iron Fist, Agent Venom, Carnage, Black Panther, Moon Knight, Red Hulk, Captain America She-Hulk, Hulk, Shang-Chi Groot (T2), Warwolf (T2) save T2 Warwolf for XAB, unless you have T2 Coulson.
Blast Sharon, Enchantress, Strange, Mantis, Cyclops Ancient One, Star-Lord Coulson (T2)
Speed Elsa (L), Kate, Rogue, Silk, Kid Kaiju Elsa, Winter Soldier Baby Groot (T2) Speed day is tough. Get Elsa's uni and her T2.
Universal Loki, Hellstorm, GR (Robbie Reyes), Captain Marvel, Black Order, Dmmu, Odin Ronan, Medusa, Hela Throot (T2) Loki strikes again.
Female Sharon, Floki, Elsa, Mantis, Rogue Hela, Ancient One (uni) Ancient One (uni) Starog is easier than Loki (uni) and would allow Floki to be used for XAB as DPS (if no BO) or team-up (w/DMMU).
Villain Loki, Enchantress Ronan, Hela n/a Looookiii
 
Dimension Rift (3 "completions")
Coordinate Rifts with alliance members to get completion bonus (gold, dimension debris, energy). MFF etiquette strongly suggests you commit to several battles in a rift if you choose to enter it.
Cards to farm: Loki, Nebula, Baby Groot, Star-Lord/Yondu, Zombies (Heroic Rifts), and Punisher (Heroic Rifts)
Characters to farm: Loki > Wasp/Yellowjacket/Groot > Ronan > others
 
Co-Op (5 "Rewards" collections)
It is worth it to increase your VIP to 1 for its benefit in Co-Op alone. There are 8 reward slots that open with increasing VIP. VIP 1 opens the GOLD slot. Otherwise the first slot is random (giving you a chance for gold).
Characters at 4 stars & level 40 Stage ~Gold per ”Reward Acquired”
0 Stage 1 ~260,000
21+ Stage 2 ~280,000
41+ Stage 3 ~320,000
61+ Stage 4 ~360,000
81+ Stage 5 ~400,000
101+ Stage 6 ~440,000
 
Epic Quest Missions
Memory Missions, Dark Dimension, Tracking, Veiled Secret, and Mutual Enemy will eventually become part of your "daily grind," but as a beginner focus only on farming Rogue and Beast from the X-men "Tracking" missions. It might also be worth farming Baron Mordo from Dr. Strange Memory Mission "Road to the Monastery" partially due to the extra obelisks.
 
World Boss Invasion (unlimited)
Your characters will be temporarily maxed for this co-op boss battle. Be sure to read and follow the requirements as best you can. Push the purple button when available. Slot boxes for later and then open them for random norns, bios, and other resources.
 
World Bosses
Gives black anti-matter, chaos norns, and bios for the black order (BO) characters. One of your primary goals of the game should be to beat world bosses as soon as possible. A few pointers:
Once unlocked and clearing 30/35 build up: Strange >>>> Corvus/Proxima > Odin/Dormammu/Jean >> Thanos > Ebony/Supergiant >>>> Black Dwarf.
World Boss Ultimate is ridiculously challenging.
 
Shadowland
A "transition" into end game content, but you can do it! Try your best to get farther each week. Floors 5, 10, and 15 reward bio selectors. These are my Six Pieces of Advice for Shadowland:
  1. Force low tier characters to clear difficult low floors. Save T2 for floors 10+
  2. Plan out all static floors (1, 2, 5, 21-25) but especially floors 22 and 23 (and floor 5 for a beginner).
  3. Keep Track of your Roster.
  4. Unless you want a specific reward avoid Waves, Rumbles, Reflects, Bleeds, and Spider-Army
  5. Keep Track of your Clears and Analyze for Improvement
  6. Have Fun, Take Your Time, and Good Luck!
First time clear rewards are incredible including rank up tickets, cards, awakened iso, and Black Anti-matter for Epic Quests and ranking up Native T2's.
 
Battleworld (1-10/day “when active”)
Occasional event that can reward bios, iso, obelisks, and cards. I would at least do one to get “on the board” and get some reward. It is usually good to max your participation if you can just for the gold participation rewards though which scale up with number of entries.
 
Alliance Conquest
Depending on the activity of your alliance you may be required (or encouraged) to participate in this incredible, interactive battle game between 3 alliances. It is reminiscent of the world domination game Risk).
It has two phases: the obvious Attack phase (3 times a day) and the slightly more confusing "prep" phase. During prep phase all you can do is revive defeated character with alliance tokens from the store or switch defending characters with crystals. It will be difficult to contribute much until you get a few 6* characters.
 

Comic Cards Offer Huge Team-wide Stat Boosts

Check out this awesome card guide. You want to work on building 4* cards with Skill Cooldown and Ignore Defense and then slowly replace those cards with 4*, 5* and 6* cards with Skill Cooldown, Ignore Defense, and Attack. Here are some great cards with "ideal rolls" from Comic Cards INFO:
Card (Acquired) Stat 1* (static) Stat 2* (static) Stat 3* Stat 4* Stat 5* Stat 6*
Loki (Loki Rift) All Attack Cooldown duration Ignore Defense Attack Speed All Defense Energy/Physical Attack
Marvel Zombies #2 (any Heroic Rift) Dodge Cooldown duration Critical Damage Ignore Defense Recovery Rate All Attack
Baby Groot (Groot Rift) Critical Damage Ignore Defense Energy Attack Cooldown duration All Defense All Attack/Physical Attack
Star-Lord (Yondu Rift) Ignore Defense Critical Rate Physical Attack Cooldown duration All Defense All Attack/Energy Attack
Avengers (Nebula Rift) Max HP Ignore Defense All Attack/Physical Attack Cooldown duration Critical Damage Energy Attack
Punisher #19 (any Heroic Rift) Ignore Defense Attack Speed Max HP Cooldown Duration All Defense All Attack
Civil War #4/Thor (Crystal Card Chests) All Attack Physical Defense Physical Attack Cooldown duration Critical Damage Ignore Defense/Energy Attack
 
It is very expensive to "unequip" cards, obelisks, and iso. Build them up in your inventory before you equip.
 

Character optimization for damage/survivability balance

First off: skills that increase by % (i.e. summons, buffs, and shields) should be upgraded.
 
Gears are built similarly for every character
Check this out for more in depth explanation, but this is the basics:
Gear 1st slot 2nd slot the rest
1 Energy/Physical attack per lvl "base" energy/physical or all attack "base" energy/physical or all attack
2 Physical defense per lvl Energy defense per lvl All defense
3 HP per lv HP per lvl or HP HP
4 Skill Cooldown in as many slots needed to get 50% Ignore Defense in leftover slots (until 50%) Crit damage, attack speed, or crit rate if both SCD and Ignore Defense are maxed
† You need to figure out if a character has attacks that base off of energy or phyical. From there you only want one or the other. A bit confusing.
Aim for 17/17/17/17 on characters you use semi-regularly and 20/20/20/20 on your main characters (required for T2 ticket).
 
Attack Iso Sets (OD, POAH, HE) tend to be the best in the long run, but heal (IAAG, SB) and Shield (DDE, BP) have their place.
As a beginner you will likely need survivability boosting until you can max your skill cooldown. It is easiest to roll Stark Backing (heal set), but I am Also Groot (heal set) is better. Drastic Density Enhancement is a shield skill that procs on attack. Binary is a Shield on Defense. As I've moved through the game I have found that I want an attack set (Overdrive, Power of Angry Hulk, or Hawk's eye) on essentially all of my characters. Note that Hawk's Eye can lead to redundant SCD and lacking Ignore Defense.
Don't equip fully awakened Iso unless you for sure want to keep a set (i.e. not Stark Backing, but yes OD or POAH). Equipping 3* or 4* iso on most of your characters should be fine. You can equip 5* and 6* iso on your main World Boss and Alliance battle hitters.
 
Obelisks ideally should have some attack stats and either a damage increase "1 attack" or an invincibility proc.
For Obelisk building start with:
and then upgrade/change option until you get a good proc. Ideally increase damage "1 attack" (any mode but especially XAB) or invincibility (any mode but especially timeline and alliance conquest).
 
Uniforms:
Never buy uniforms unless they are on sale (750 or less). I would not buy uniforms just for the sake of increasing the stats of another uniform wearer. There is always a benefit from buying a uniform for a character that you use, but there are definitely a few "game-changers":
 
 
Tier-2
T2 will always increase a character's overall power, but there are a few that are particularly useful. When looking to Tier 2 a character take particular note of how their skills may change and possible team-wide boosts.
Elsa, Black Bolt, and Carnage absolutely need their T2. They gain a damage immunity (invincibility for Carnage) on one of their skills which significantly increases their survivability.
Support characters have significant team boosts at T2 which may make their T2 of higher priority than other "worth it" T2's. These include Coulson, Warwolf, Groot, Wasp, and Mantis.
 
Skill Rotations
When using a character, the order of skills you use can have a significant impact on survivability and damage output. Try to prioritize higher damaging skills (usually 5, 4, and 3) and buffs (usually skill 5 or 3) while also preventing overlapping survivability mechanisms (damage immunity, iframes, guard-hit shields, and crowd control). As an example look at Sharon's skills:
Damage Immunity ... ... i frame
3 1c 5 2c 4(c)
Skill 3 starts the damage immunity. Skill 1 is a non-iframe skill. Skill 5 ends in an iframe and the beginning of skills 2 and 4 are both iframes. You could also just do 3-5-4 with similar reasoning. With the Starlight uni do not cancel skill 4 (the iframe/main damage is at the end).
I've compiled a list of skill rotations specifically for Shadowland, but also useful for any other mode. Keep in in mind that stun-type debuffs have no effect on World Bosses (other than Skill 2 "Charm" of Enchantress).
 
Uru are a huge resource sink-hole that become increasingly available to you from level 60-70
They can fill in the cracks of your character build after you have used up your gear options. Do not try to get mythic uru unless you are willing to sell your soul rather shoot for 4* and maybe 5*. Once you are at level 70 try the following algorithm:
  1. Fill all empty uru slots with worthless 1* uru (physical defense) then amplify until you have 3-4 shiny spots.
  2. Equip 2 attack uru (energy or physical) on each gear in the amplified spots.
  3. Max Skill cooldown at 50% (200=1%).
  4. Max Ignore Defense at 50%. (200=1%).
  5. Equip whatever you feel the character needs. Critical Damage/Critical Rate are solid options (boost at about 2:1 ratio). Attack speed is useful, but not for every character (shortens iframe time). HP and Energy Defense is great for Destroyer. Dodge might be useful.
If you only have a few slots available then I would focus on SCD and Ignore Defense, but recognize the uru you equip might not be there to stay. Amplifying is RNG (as most things in this game are) and you may end up with redundant stats (i.e. a slot with SCD or Ignore Defense gets amplified).
 

Lab upgrades (especially Item Shop) may have some value**

How much you actually want to upgrade these things is up to personal preference, but imho it is generally too costly. But you can get a second opinion
 

Quick Start Glossary

I tried to avoid jargon and acronyms specifically in this guide, but head over here for ones you will definitely come across.
 

Updates

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